Ockham introduced the principle of parsimony – or Occam's razor – whereby a simple theory is preferred to a more complex one, and speculation on unobservable phenomena is avoided.  In England Geoffrey Chaucer helped establish Middle English as a literary language with his Canterbury Tales, which contained a wide variety of narrators and stories (including some translated from Boccaccio). Marinids He renounced the crown in his chamber in the White Tower and Henry IV was proclaimed King the next day, The reign of King Henry IV (grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gaunt)1399 Henry invaded England while Richard was on campaign in Ireland, usurping the throne from the kingHenry IV died suffering from leprosy and epilepsy, The reign of King Henry V (son of Henry IV)1414: Lollard revolt1415: Battle of Agincourt and English claims to the French Crown1413 - 1422 The wars with France waged during his reign left England deeply in debt, The reign of King Henry VI (son of Henry V) and the Dual Monarchy of England and FranceHenry VI (son of Henry V) reigned during 1422 - 1461 & 1470 - 1471 1429: Joan of Arc lifts the siege of Orleans for the Dauphin of France, enabling him to eventually be crowned at Reims1430: Capture, trial, and execution of Joan of Arc1434: The Medici family rises to prominence in Florence1452: Leonardo da Vinci is born1453: The Hundred Years War ends. The Late Middle Ages (1300-1500 CE).  Though employed by the English as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346, firearms initially had little effect in the field of battle. months = " Explore the interesting, and fascinating selection of unique websites created and produced by the Siteseen network. Another famous morality play is Everyman. Rome had ruled much of Europe. , From 1337, England's attention was largely directed towards France in the Hundred Years' War. Granada Jones, pp.  As Genoese and Venetian merchants opened up direct sea routes with Flanders, the Champagne fairs lost much of their importance. The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe. Allmand (1998), pp. By the end of the medieval period, the entire Balkan peninsula was annexed by, or became vassal to, the Ottomans. , Iceland benefited from its relative isolation and was the last Scandinavian country to be struck by the Black Death.  The Condemnation of 1277, enacted at the University of Paris, placed restrictions on ideas that could be interpreted as heretical; restrictions that had implication for Aristotelian thought. Period: Jan 1, 1278. to . Middle Ages Timeline 1066 - 1485 Timeline The great Medieval people of the Middle Ages are all featured in the timeline. Nordics After: Industrial Age, Great War Age, Information Age. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker.  Through the Welsh Wars the English became acquainted with, and adopted, the highly efficient longbow. Cipolla (1976), p. 283; Koenigsberger, p. 297; Pounds, pp. Middle Ages – Lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. Allmand (1998), pp. Edward claimed overlordship over Scotland, leading to the Wars of Scottish Independence. Allmand (1998), p. 586; Hollister, p. 339; Holmes, p. 260.  Polyphony had been common in the secular music of the Provençal troubadours. , As economic and demographic methods were applied to the study of history, the trend was increasingly to see the late Middle Ages as a period of recession and crisis. In the 1500 the Roman Catholic Church was all powerful in Western Europe. 499–500; Koenigsberger, p. 331.  The union, and the conversion of Lithuania, also marked the end of paganism in Europe.. Byzantine empire 330. Byzantine Empire Koenigsberger, p. 332; MacCulloch, p. 36. Scotland, Balkans/Middle East The reign of King Edward I Jan 1, 1300. Divorce was unheard of in Catholic countries 4.  The first of these came from Oxford professor John Wycliffe in England. Allmand (1998), p. 377; Koenigsberger, p. 332. The intellectual transformation of the Renaissance is viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, the Italian Renaissance began. Families like the Fuggers in Germany, the Medicis in Italy, the de la Poles in England, and individuals like Jacques Coeur in France would help finance the wars of kings, and achieve great political influence in the process.  After the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 the Russian princes started to see themselves as the heirs of the Byzantine Empire. Belgrade, an Hungarian domain at the time, was the last large Balkan city to fall under Ottoman rule, in 1521. Castile  This can be seen particularly well in his sculptures, inspired by the study of classical models.  Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new trade routes – south of Africa to India, and across the Atlantic Ocean to America.  The loss of France led to discontent at home.  The works of these scholars anticipated the heliocentric worldview of Nicolaus Copernicus. In this time period, everyone was looking for some type of structure. , Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt. Everyman receives Death's summons, struggles to escape and finally resigns himself to necessity. Lithuania It is preceded by the High Middle Ages and followed by the Colonial Age. Cipolla (1976), pp. Timeline of Events in the Middle Ages180 The death of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius marks the end of the "Pax Romana," or Roman peace. Habsburg The great social changes of the period opened up new possibilities for women in the fields of commerce, learning and religion.  The vernacular had been in use in England since the 8th century and France since the 11th century, where the most popular genres had been the chanson de geste, troubadour lyrics and romantic epics, or the romance. Sicilies  Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. , The introduction of gunpowder affected the conduct of war significantly. Genoa, Iberian peninsula This is the start of the Dark Ages or the Middle Ages. Holmes, p. 312; MacCulloch, pp. The Middle Ages Timeline Timeline Description: The Middle Ages was the time after the fall of the Roman Empire up to the time of the Renaissance. Ragusa Early Middle Ages (also called Dark Ages) High Middle Ages; Late Middle Ages Engel Pál, Kristó Gyula, Kubinyi András. Venice Iceland Elizabeth I forbid all religious plays in 1558 and the great cycle plays had been silenced by the 1580s. Years of instability follow, and although Rome recovers numerous times, this is the beginning of Rome's three-century decline.  The emergence of Joan of Arc as a military leader changed the course of war in favour of the French, and the initiative was carried further by King Louis XI. , The limits of Christian Europe were still being defined in the 14th and 15th centuries. Allmand (1998), p. 353; Hollister, p. 344; Koenigsberger, p. 332–3. However the premature death of the Hungarian Lord left Pannonia defenseless and in chaos. Duby, p. 270; Koenigsberger, p. 284; McKisack, p. 334.  The Swedes were reluctant members of the Danish-dominated union from the start. Knights of St. John Turkic states Instead, he named as his heir the young prince Sigismund of Luxemburg. months = " Looking for accurate facts and impartial information?  Florence grew to prominence amongst the Italian city-states through financial business, and the dominant Medici family became important promoters of the Renaissance through their patronage of the arts. 1453. Using this powerful tool, the Hungarian king led wars against the Turkish armies and stopped the Ottomans during his reign.  Yet it was his Dutch colleague, Johan Huizinga, who was primarily responsible for popularising the pessimistic view of the Late Middle Ages, with his book The Autumn of the Middle Ages (1919). , To many secular rulers the Protestant reformation was a welcome opportunity to expand their wealth and influence. The Renaissance was a fervent period of European cultural, artistic, political and economic “rebirth” following the Middle Ages. At the Battle of Mohács, the forces of the Ottoman Empire annihilated the Hungarian army and Louis II of Hungary drowned in the Csele Creek while trying to escape. , The death of Alexander III of Scotland in 1286 threw the country into a succession crisis, and the English king, Edward I, was brought in to arbitrate. The term "Late Middle Ages" refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages. , In science, classical authorities like Aristotle were challenged for the first time since antiquity. 299–300. 286, 291. After the death of the young king Vladislaus I of Hungary during the Battle of Varna in 1444 against the Ottomans, the Kingdom was placed in the hands of count John Hunyadi, who became Hungary's regent-governor (1446–1453). Achaia After the death of Matthew, and with end of the Black Army, the Ottoman Empire grew in strength and Central Europe was defenseless. , Avignon was the seat of the papacy from 1309 to 1376.  As the centre of the movement shifted to Rome, the period culminated in the High Renaissance masters da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael. It is often considered to begin in 1300, though some scholars look at the mid- to late-fifteenth century as the beginning of the end. , At the Council of Constance (1414–1418), the Papacy was once more united in Rome.  Buridan developed the theory of impetus as the cause of the motion of projectiles, which was an important step towards the modern concept of inertia. Hollister, p. 355; Holmes, pp.  It took 150 years for the European population to regain similar levels of 1300. 407–27. , Meanwhile, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, met resistance in his attempts to consolidate his possessions, particularly from the Swiss Confederation formed in 1291. Generally described as taking , The end of medieval drama came about due to a number of factors, including the weakening power of the Catholic Church, the Protestant Reformation and the banning of religious plays in many countries. Combined with the influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. , A precursor to Renaissance art can be seen already in the early 14th-century works of Giotto. Teutonic Order By the end of the 15th century the Ottoman Empire had advanced all over Southeastern Europe, eventually conquering the Byzantine Empire and extending control over the Balkan states. 300–1, Hollister, p. 375. Their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations. Period: 324. to . Along the way, he is deserted by Kindred, Goods, and Fellowship – only Good Deeds goes with him to the grave.  The immediate provocation spurring this act was Pope Leo X’s renewal of the indulgence for the building of the new St. Peter's Basilica in 1514. Brady et al., p. xvii; Holmes, p. 276; Ozment, p. 4. Duchy of Athens Now much of the land would fall into confusion as local kings and rulers tried to grab power. An Overview of Western Civilization 4. While the Grand Duchy of Moscow was beginning to repel the Mongols, and the Iberian kingdoms completed the Reconquista of the peninsula and turned their attention outwards, the Balkans fell under the dominance of the Ottoman Empire. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and is variously demarcated by historians as ending with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, merging into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. Mameluke Empire Hungary then fell into a serious crisis and was invaded, ending its significance in central Europe during the medieval era. The Late Middle Ages (often shortened into LMA) is the 6th era in Forge of Empires. For 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit. "; Europeans also discovered new trading routes, as was the case with Columbus’ travel to the Americas in 1492, and Vasco da Gama’s circumnavigation of Africa and India in 1498. The second half of the medieval period, which may be termed the later Middle Ages, consists of the High Middle Ages (ca. Venetian Crete Economic reasons were most important for marriage (love not paramount until the 18th-19th centuries) 3. Their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations.  While England's attention was thus directed elsewhere, the Hiberno-Norman lords in Ireland were becoming gradually more assimilated into Irish society, and the island was allowed to develop virtual independence under English overlordship. , The increasingly dominant position of the Ottoman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean presented an impediment to trade for the Christian nations of the west, who in turn started looking for alternatives. Now much of the land would fall into confusion as local kings and rulers tried to grab power. 378–81. Cantor, p. 511; Hollister, p. 264; Koenigsberger, p. 255. Belgian historian Henri Pirenne continued the subdivision of Early, High, and Late Middle Ages in the years around World War I. They eventually took on the imperial title of Tsar, and Moscow was described as the Third Rome. Hunyadi succeeded during the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 against the Ottomans, the biggest victory against that empire in decades. A timeline listing the important events during Early Middle Ages (475-1000) Search all of SparkNotes Search.  The beneficiaries of these developments would accumulate immense wealth. Papal states "; However, the glory of the Kingdom ended in the early 16th century, when the King Louis II of Hungary was killed in the battle of Mohács in 1526 against the Ottoman Empire. , The most important development of late medieval literature was the ascendancy of the vernacular languages. Curtius, p. 396; Koenigsberger, p. 368; Jones, p. 258. The use of the national or feudal levy was gradually replaced by paid troops of domestic retinues or foreign mercenaries. Edward was escorted to London and then to the Tower. Allmand (1998), pp. Within the arts, humanism took the form of the Renaissance.